Facebook175Tweet0Pin0The Thurston Economic Development Council (EDC) is committed to bringing forth the most beneficial resources, partnerships, and skills to help support the region’s businesses during the COVID-19 pandemic.For the first time in nearly 20 years Saint Martin’s University has unveiled a new logo. Photo credit: Saint Martin’s UniversityFrom the first day that COVID-19 began affecting Thurston County’s small businesses, the EDC started brainstorming on how best to assist business owners during this incredibly trying time. One of the main avenues that proved to be the most effective way to push out resources was by creating a robust COVID-19 Resource Page. This page is continually updated so that readers can stay informed on how the pandemic is progressing and obtain concise and easy to follow guidelines on how to request assistance.The key component that the EDC is asking every small business to fill out is the Economic Injury Form. The form presents various questions including a brief explanation of what adverse economic effects the disaster had on your business, estimated dollar loss, and the number of employees prior to the disaster. Once completed, the form should be emailed to [email protected] “We are requesting that businesses fill out this form on a monthly basis so that we can track the impact that COVID-19 is having,” states Kaylee Purcell, director of the center for business and innovation. These forms are of the utmost importance as they’re directly used when EDC employees head out to request funding from local state and government agencies. “If we can paint a picture of the local impact that this pandemic is having,” continues Purcell, “then it’s that much easier to request the funding that our local businesses so need. We hope that business owners can make filling out the forms a monthly habit for as long as we’re feeling the impacts of this pandemic.”Another important feature on the EDC’s website is the latest information from on the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). Founded in 1952, the SBA is the only cabinet-level federal agency fully dedicated to small business and provides counseling, capital, and contracting expertise as the nation’s main go-to resource and voice for small businesses. Various resources from the SBA include their Economic Injury Disaster Loan that’s available to those who qualify from both nonprofits and for-profit businesses. This loan has a low interest rate with a max rate of 4 percent.As Executive Director, Michael Cade is responsible for the overall direction and management of the organization and has worked diligently alongside his employees to quickly disperse information surrounding COVID-19. Photo courtesy: Thurston Economic Development CouncilThe SBA’s latest information surrounding COVID-19 is especially important for the Thurston County community as there are currently three SBA programs under one roof at the EDC, including the Washington Small Business Development Center (SBDC). This SBA-funded program has existed for more than 40 years and is here to help by offering programs free of charge. Locally in Thurston County, there are two advisors and many more across the state that are offering one-on-one online and phone sessions as well as many group webinars. The EDC also links to helpful pages such as the SBDC’s Disaster Planning and Recovery page as well as their Business Resiliency Toolkit.Another SBA-funded program under the EDC’s roof is SCORE. For over 50 years, SCORE has served as America’s premier source of free business mentoring and education. Currently, they are offering online and phone sessions with their many mentors across the country. Other SCORE tools that can be found on the EDC’s website include: Will Business Interruption Insurance Help, Crisis Communications Planning Checklist and more.The third SBA-funded program at the EDC is the Washington Center for Women in Business (WCWB). With a mission to empower entrepreneurs to succeed in business by providing coaching, training, and technical assistance on a wide variety of topics, the WCWB is a key resource during these unprecedented times. Offering assistance in both English and Spanish, the EDC recommends signing up for their various webinars and making an appointment with a knowledgeable advisor.Other resources that can be found on the continually updated COVID-19 Resource Page are a comprehensive list of actions that businesses can take, vendor supply chains, unemployment benefits, the Employment Security Department’s shared work program and more. “We’re really trying to keep the website updated with as much real-time information as possible to help our community,” states Purcell.The Thurston Economic Development Council’s mission is to create a dynamic and sustainable economy that supports the values of the people who live and work in Thurston County. Photo courtesy: Thurston Economic Development CouncilAnother avenue that the EDC has taken to help those in need is by creating a 501(c)(3) charitable fund that is distributed to small businesses with less than five employees. “Individuals can donate to this Fund now,” says Purcell, “and we are working with different partnerships throughout the region to secure larger funds.” The SBA’s Economic Injury Form will be part of application process to be eligible to receive these funds, which is another reason that the EDC recommends filling out that form now to be ahead of the game.The EDC also would like individuals to be aware of the Community Foundation of South Puget Sound and United Way of Thurston County’s newly established Thurston County COVID-19 Response Fund. This Fund is designed to complement the work of public health officials and expand local capacity to address all aspects of the outbreak as efficiently as possible by assisting the most disproportionately impacted individuals and families, as well as certain organizations in our community who are serving those populations.Additionally, the EDC has implemented a weekly call with their resource partners to discuss updates on what resources are currently available, new closures, and other important updates. These calls take place each Friday, please contact the EDC if you would like to learn more about these calls.To stay up-to-date on all aspects surrounding the rapidly changing COVID-19, follow the EDC on Facebook and Twitter as well as the WCWB Facebook. Feel free to contact the EDC at 360-754-6320 or [email protected] with any questions.
Masai men in Kenya, east Africa, enjoyingthe convenience of their mobile phones. (Image: Textually.org) Mobiles have made it easier for thosein rural South Africa to communicate with relatives in the city. (Image: w3.org)Khanyi Magubane By the year 2012, 485-million people in Africa, or 38% of the continent’s population, will be mobile phone users. This was revealed at the 11th AfricaCom conference, held in Cape Town on 18 November.The two-day event brought together over 3 500 people from various sectors of the telecommunications industry, including fixed, mobile and wireless operators, investors, vendors, regulators and industry analysts.Telecommunications companies such as South Africa’s Vodacom and MTN shared their plans to expand the mobile industry in Africa.Other issues discussed included broadband opportunities on the continent, with the launch of new submarine cables set to improve connectivity.The event’s exhibition was also a great success, with 170 exhibitors showcasing their businesses. This gave delegates a chance to network and share in their common interest of growing the African telecommunications market.Growing mobile AfricaAnother focus was the launch of wireless networks across Africa, notably iBurst and Polka in South Africa, and its positive impact in lowering operator costs.As a result of the rapid expansion of mobile use on the continent, operators have been forced to diversify the types of packages offered to clients in a bid to attract their business.Operators agreed that it was important to ensure that they offered a quality network, first-class coverage, relevant services, and a strong brand to their clients.Industry specialists revealed that the number of mobile users in Africa is growing at double the rate of the rest of the globe. The three countries with the highest number of mobile users are Nigeria, South Africa and Egypt respectively.According to MTN representatives, the mobile network had 450 000 users in Rwanda by the end of 2007. By mid-November 2008, this figure had grown to more than 1-million.MTN’s managing director in South Africa, Tim Lowry, says by the end of 2009 the number of mobile users in Rwanda is expected to grow to about 2-million.Lowry added that mobile phone affordability should be taken into consideration when developing the African market.He pointed out that MTN representatives had spotted phones selling for as little as between US$10 (R102) to $12 (R123) in China.According to his calculations, 5 000 to 6 000 of the low-cost phones could be moved off the shelves every week in countries like Uganda, where there is still much growth potential.Awarding African excellenceDuring the conference, the first AfricaCom Awards ceremony was held to celebrate excellence in Africa’s dynamic telecoms markets. Seven companies were rewarded for their work.South Africa’s Cell C won the best network quality initiative. Three networks walked away with two awards each. The Zain group, which operates in Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Chad, Madagascar, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait and Lebanon, received two awards for its rebranding campaign and its One Network roaming service.Kenya’s Safaricom was awarded for the best rural market solution and the coveted Changing Lives award for its M-Pesa service.Uganda’s Warid Telecom walked away with two awards after they were named the best new entrant and best customer service provider.Covering Southern AfricaIn October 2007, the mobile phone industry, represented by the Global Systems for Mobiles Association (GSMA), announced that it was to invest more than $50-billion (R5-billion) in sub-Saharan Africa over the next five years to provide more than 90% of the population with coverage.The announcement was made at the Connect Africa summit in Kigali, Rwanda.The GSMA is the global trade association representing more than 700 GSM mobile operators across 218 countries worldwide.The investment will be used to extend the reach of GSM mobile networks, which are enhanced with the GPRS, Edge and HSPA technologies.MTN, Vodacom, Orange, and Celtel are among the African mobile operators planning to invest heavily in the expansion and enhancement of their networks.GSMA estimates that the mobile industry has invested $35-billion (R3.5-billion) providing more than 500-million people – or 67% of the population – in sub-Saharan Africa with coverage.“This surge in investment by the mobile industry has changed the lives of millions of Africans, catalysing economic development and strengthening social ties,” said Rob Conway, CEO of GSMA.Currently, there are more than 150-million mobile subscribers in sub-Saharan Africa.According to the GSMA, as the number of new mobile users continues to grow, so too will economic prosperity in the areas where there is most expansion.The organisation estimates that for every 10% in mobile use per country, it can increase the annual growth rate of GDP by up to 1.2%.In order to create the conditions that will maximise the benefit of this new investment, the GSMA called on governments across sub-Saharan Africa to “urgently remove” the barriers in the path of entrepreneurs.In particular, African governments need to ensure that sufficient spectrum is available to enable the hundreds of millions of Africans, who live beyond the reach of today’s fixed networks, to gain access to cost-effective broadband services, it said.Research on mobile use in South Africa conducted by Market Tree market research consultancy indicates that in 2005, 41% of adult South Africans had a mobile.In 2004, 10.2-million South Africans adults owned a mobile. Of those, 85% did not have a contract and relied on airtime vouchers, with an average of R95 ($9 dollars) spent each month.In 2004 Gauteng province had the highest number of mobile users, with 48% of adults using mobiles, while the Western Cape had the second highest with 43%.Do you have queries or comments about this article? Email Khanyi Magubane at [email protected] Related articlesRecycle that old phone One-stop ZOK shop Instant success for MXit musos Useful linksMTN VodacomCell CGSMAAfricaCom conference read more
9 November 2016Zenzile Miriam Makeba was born in Johannesburg on 4 March 1932; she died on 9 November 2008 in Castel Volturno, Italy, following a concert performance.Miriam Makeba a.k.a. Mama Africa (4 March 1932 – 9 November 2008) – She was a South African singer and civil rights activist. #F2FA #africa pic.twitter.com/Y5sA8NAvuf— Face2face Africa (@Face2faceAFRICA) November 3, 2016She began her professional singing career in the 1950s as a member of the Manhattan Brothers, later working with the Skylarks. Her powerful, distinctive voice and fresh approach to mixing traditional African music with newer jazz sounds helped to make her 1956 solo single Pata Pata a national radio hit.Makeba sang the lead in the local musical King Kong and following an appearance in the anti-apartheid documentary Come Back, Africa, she left South Africa to reprise her King Kong role on London’s West End.She met American singer Harry Belafonte in 1959, who helped to boost her singing career in the US. Makeba released her first solo album in 1960, featuring her signature hit song, the classic Click Song.Makeba performed for the American president, John F Kennedy, and appeared on the popular Ed Sullivan television show, which boosted her profile among American audiences. Time magazine called her the “most exciting new singing talent to appear in many years”, while Newsweek compared her to Ella Fitzgerald and Frank Sinatra.Unable to return to apartheid South Africa, Makeba lived in exile for the next 30 years.Makeba and Belafonte married in 1964 and together recorded the Grammy- winning An Evening with… featuring the hits Train Song / Mbombela and Malaika. She was considered one of the innovators of the world music genre and was famed for her idiosyncratic, proudly African fashion sense. She re-recorded Pata Pata in 1967, which become a global smash hit.Makeba and Belafonte divorced and she went on to married US civil rights activist Stokely Carmichael. She addressed the UN in 1975, calling for global political and economic pressure on South Africa’s apartheid government. Makeba later moved to Brussels, Belgium, to focus on family life and her political activism; she also undertook several successful tours on the European jazz circuit.After touring with Paul Simon on his groundbreaking Graceland tour in 1987, Makeba’s music career experienced a revival, and she released her first new music in a decade. She also performed at the 1988 Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute in London, where she performed the song Soweto Blues with Hugh Masekela to an estimated global audience of 600 million.Makeba returned to South Africa in 1990, after the release of Mandela, and set about creating, alongside other former musical exiles, a new soundtrack for post- apartheid South Africa. Her 1991 album, Eye on Tomorrow, featured performances with American jazz greats Nina Simone and Dizzy Gillespie.Her final studio album, Homeland, released in 2000, featured an updated version of Pata Pata and earned the singer a Grammy for Best World Music Album.Makeba suffered a fatal heart attack following a performance in Castel Volturno, in Italy, on 9 November 2008. Grammy Award-winning Beninoise singer Angélique Kidjo curated a performance piece, titled Mama Africa: Celebrating Miriam Makeba, that gathered together African and international female performers to pay tribute to the life and art of Makeba and her groundbreaking role in bringing African music to a global audience.Source: South African History OnlineSouthAfrica.info reporterWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SouthAfrica.info material read more
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Monsanto Company recently announced updates on advancements made across its research and development (R&D) pipeline over the past year. A record number of projects advanced phases across the company’s five R&D platforms: data science, plant breeding, plant biotechnology, crop protection and ag biologicals. This marks the fifth consecutive year that more than 20 projects advanced in the pipeline.Ty’s Wrap for Friday LONGAUDIO: Ty Higgins and Monsanto’s Dr. Robb Fraley on the company’s success story of 2017 and what is in the works for 2018.“Farmers’ abilities to meet global food and fiber needs will continue to be constrained by land and water availability, and complicated by climate change – so we need to grow more crops, but we need to do it using less water and less energy,” said Dr. Robb Fraley, Monsanto’s executive vice president and chief technology officer. “Our work contributes to each of the 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and many of the projects in our R&D pipeline reflect our commitment to climate-smart practices in modern agriculture. Farmers will continue to fight off drought, yield-robbing weeds, destructive insects, and plant diseases all while trying to optimize the opportunities uniquely embedded in their fields. And our researchers’ early adoption of data science innovations– especially artificial intelligence and machine learning – will help farmers accomplish their goals to the benefit of the environment and consumers.”Monsanto’s R&D platforms support sustainable modern agriculture practices by delivering innovations that: Help Farmers Combat Threats To Their Crops According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, as much as 40 percent of the world’s potential harvests are lost to damaging insects, weeds, and plant diseases each year.1 Over the past century, the crop protection toolbox has grown larger and more effective, while evolving to enable farmers to produce more with less of an impact on the environment.Key Monsanto R&D pipeline projects designed to help farmers combat threats include:Lygus and Thrips Control Cotton technology, which is advancing to Phase 4, is designed to protect farmers’ cotton crops from damage caused by lygus, thrips and fleahopper bugs. This technology has the potential to be the first to control all three cotton pests, while potentially reducing the amount of insecticides farmers spray on their plants to do so.Trecepta™ technology, advancing to launch in 2018, which is designed to help farmers protect their corn plants from attacks by damaging insects including fall armyworm, corn earworm, corn borers and cutworms.NemaStrike™ technology, which is designed to protect corn, soybean and cotton crops from tiny parasitic worms called nematodes that attack plant roots and negatively impact harvests. Also aimed at controlling nematodes, the Soy BioNematicide product being developed by The BioAg Alliance with Novozymes uses soil microbes to combat nematodes and advances to Phase 3.The Climate Corporation’s disease diagnosis and identification technology, which uses artificial intelligence (AI) to identify and diagnose diseases in corn, soybeans and wheat in real time to help farmers move quickly to protect their crops during the growing season. This technology advances from development to the pre-commercial phase.New formulations and combinations of proven weed killers in products like Harness® Max Acetochlor Premix, advancing to launch in 2018, Next Gen Dicamba Premix (Phase 2) and Acetochlor + Dicamba + 3rd MOA Premix (Phase 1), which will eventually help farmers manage weeds that steal sunlight, water and nutrients from crops.“On our family farm, we strive to use the products, technologies and information that allows us to be highly productive and efficient in growing crops in a sustainable way for the land and society. Understanding the interaction of these enables us to use the right products at the right time with confidence,” said Matt Helms, Monsanto’s global ag productivity technology lead. “Our R&D pipeline has a broad range of technologies. Some of these are more familiar such as next-generation herbicide premixes in new combinations, and others are breakthrough and novel such as on-seed soil microbes and artificial intelligence.” Help Farmers Optimize Opportunities In Their Fields In addition to anticipating and combating threats to their crops, farmers seek to make the most of the land they cultivate. Each square foot of soil represents potential for a bountiful harvest, and Monsanto’s research – from placing soil microbes on seeds to improving a plant’s output through selective breeding – seeks to help farmers maximize that potential. R&D pipeline projects that take this approach include:Corn BioYield 2, expected to be branded Acceleron® B-360 ST upon regulatory approvals, which uses soil microbes as a seed coating to increase a plant’s ability to take up nutrients. Produced by The BioAg Alliance, this project advances to Phase 4 based on another year of strong performance in the field.Monsanto’s High-Density Corn System, advancing to launch in 2018, which uses conventional breeding to help corn seeds thrive when placed closer to each other in the field. Farmers can use this closer spacing to maximize the number of plants in each field (called plant population), to make the most out of their sunlight, water, and soil nutrients.Monsanto’s vegetable breeding program which provides growers with an average of over 125 new varieties across 20 produce crops each year, providing incremental improvements in agronomic performance, flavor profile, size, color, or shape. These annual breeding upgrades help Monsanto’s vegetable growers to be more successful with their customers in the produce value chain.The Climate Corporation’s advanced seed scripting tools which enable farmers to combine multiple data sets – the farmer’s unique field data, combined with weather, soil and field research data – to deliver seed planting prescriptions that are tailored to specific genetics and their unique yield goals.“Optimizing opportunity each year begins with getting seeds off to a strong start,” said Dr. Shannon Hauf, Monsanto’s global cotton, wheat and specialty crops lead, who grew up on her family’s farm. “Continued innovations in modern agriculture will advance the use of microbial seed coatings to give those plants an early boost and maximize plant populations with the latest hybrids – all while using data science to place those seeds in the optimum location for maximum growth potential.” Enable Farmers To Use Natural Resources More Efficiently And Apply Farm Inputs Precisely Farmers are dedicated to soil, water, and energy conservation within their operations. In today’s changing climate, farmers continue to come up with innovative approaches to conserve nature’s resources, all while applying other inputs like seed, pesticides, and fertilizer more precisely. As they do so, modern agriculture is working to provide them with the tools necessary to do the job.Key R&D pipeline projects to help farmers use resources more efficiently and apply farm inputs precisely include:The Climate Corporation’s nitrogen management technology which uses a combination of data sources to help farmers decide when and how much nitrogen to apply in order to help their crops thrive and reduce overuse, which can lead to runoff. Further, The Climate Corporation’s HydroBio irrigation management platform and advanced irrigation research analyzes crop irrigation data so farmers can more efficiently manage water use.Advancements in herbicide-tolerant systems like Fourth Generation Herbicide Tolerant Cotton (advancing to Phase 2) which are expected to further enable no-till and conservation-tillage farming, preserving the top layer of the soil and limiting its runoff into streams, rivers and lakes. Untilled soil stores carbon that’s been absorbed through crops and plant materials and keeps it from the air.In addition to Trecepta technology, incremental advancements in insect-resistant systems – like Fourth Generation Above-Ground Insect Protection for Corn (advancing to Phase 3) – that can help reduce the number of pesticide applications farmers must apply, saving fuel and reducing carbon emissions with fewer passes over the field.“Data-driven innovation is about more than producing higher yields,” said Dr. Sam Eathington, chief science officer for the Climate Corporation. “It’s also about helping farmers manage critical inputs like seed, fertilizer and water so they can get the most out of every acre in a more sustainable way.”Monsanto’s Scientists Embrace Data Innovations – Including Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning – For The Benefit Of Our Farmer Customers And ConsumersThe world of agriculture is being transformed by data science, from algorithms and analytics to deep learning and artificial intelligence. In the face of climate change, advancements in these areas are helping farmers grow the food we need while using natural resources more efficiently.“Monsanto’s plant breeders, climate scientists and soil microbiologists were among the industry’s earliest adopters of data science, artificial intelligence and machine learning – and for good reason,” said Anju Gupta, Monsanto’s information technology partnerships and outreach lead. “In the years I spent as a plant breeder and quantitative geneticist, my teams used predictive analytics to help us decide which products to advance, which ultimately led us to knowing the potential of every seed before it was even planted. In much the same way, our vegetable research team is developing modeling tools that predict the flavor performance of our products in crops such as tomato, and our soil microbials team relies on analytics to evaluate hundreds of thousands of strains each year.”Information about Monsanto’s R&D Pipeline, Projects and CollaborationsMonsanto believes that innovation, continuous improvements in farming practices, and collaborations across the public and private sectors can truly make a difference for farmers, the consumers they serve and the planet. Additional information on Monsanto’s R&D pipeline, the projects outlined in this release and others, are available online at www.monsanto.com/pipeline. Monsanto’s R&D pipeline will be showcased as part of the company’s fiscal 2018 first quarter earnings announcement today, and Climate Corporation and The BioAg Alliance will provide detailed project updates in separate releases. For more information about today’s earnings announcement, the news release and supporting resources are available at www.monsanto.com.About Monsanto CompanyMonsanto is committed to bringing a broad range of solutions to help nourish our growing world. We produce seeds for fruits, vegetables and key crops – such as corn, soybeans, and cotton – that help farmers have better harvests while using water and other important resources more efficiently. We work to find sustainable solutions for soil health, help farmers use data to improve farming practices and conserve natural resources, and provide crop protection products to minimize damage from pests and disease. Through programs and partnerships, we collaborate with farmers, researchers, nonprofit organizations, universities and others to help tackle some of the world’s biggest challenges. To learn more about Monsanto, our commitments and our more than 20,000 dedicated employees, please visit monsanto.com. Follow our business on Twitter® at twitter.com/MonsantoCo. read more
DefinitionTesticle pain is discomfort in one or both testicles. The pain can spread into the lower abdomen.Alternative NamesPain – testicleCommon CausesThe testicles are very sensitive. Even a minor injury can cause pain. Abdominal pain may occur before testicle pain in some conditions.Common causes of testicle pain include:InjuryInfection or swelling of the sperm ducts (epididymitis) or testicles (orchitis).Twisting of the testicles that can cut off the blood supply (testicular torsion). It is most common in young men between 10 and 20 years old. It is a medical emergency that needs to be treated as soon as possible. If surgery is performed within 6 hours, most testicles can be saved.Mild pain may be caused by fluid collection in the scrotum, such as:Enlarged veins in the scrotum (varicocele)Cyst in the epididymis that often contains dead sperm cells (spermatocele)Fluid surrounding the testicle (hydrocele)Pain in the testicles may also be caused by a hernia or kidney stone.Testicular cancer is almost always painless. But any testicle lump should be checked out by your health care provider, whether or not there is pain.Home CareNon-urgent causes of testicle pain, such as minor injuries and fluid collection, can often be treated with home care. The following steps may reduce discomfort and swelling:Provide support to the scrotum by wearing an athletic supporter.Apply ice to the scrotum.Take warm baths if there are signs of swelling.While lying down, place a rolled towel under your scrotum.Try over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Do NOT give aspirin to children.Call your health care provider ifadvertisementSudden, severe testicle pain, however, needs immediate medical care.Call your health care provider immediately or go to an emergency room if:Your pain is severe or suddenYou have had an injury or trauma to the scrotum, and you still have pain or swelling after one hourYour pain is accompanied by nausea or vomitingAlso call your health care provider right away if:You feel a lump in the scrotumYou have a feverYour scrotum is warm, tender to the touch, or redYou have been in contact with someone who has the mumpsWhat to expect at your health care providers officeYour health care provider will do an exam of your groin, testicles, and abdomen. Your health care provider will ask you questions about the pain such as:How long have you had testicular pain? Did is start suddenly or slowly?Where do you feel the pain? Is it on one or both sides?How bad is the pain? Is it constant or does it come and go?Does the pain reach into your abdomen or back?Have you had any injuriesHave you ever had an infection spread by sexual contact?Do you have any other symptoms like swelling, redness, change in the color of your urine, fever, or unexpected weight loss?The following tests may be performed:Ultrasound of the testiclesUrinalysis and urine culturesTesting of prostate secretionsPreventionPrevent injury by wearing an athletic supporter during contact sports.Follow safe sex practices. If you are diagnosed with chlamydia or another STD, all of your sexual partners need to be checked. If they are infected.Make sure that children have received the MMR (mumps, measles, and rubella) vaccine.ReferencesTrojian TH, Lishnak TS, Heiman D. Epididymitis and Orchitis: An Overview. Am Fam Physician. April 2009; 79(7).Wampler SM, Llanes M. Common scrotal and testicular problems. Prim Care. 2010;37:613-626.Montgomery JS. Bloom DA. The diagnosis and management of scrotal masses. Med Clin North Am. 2011;95:235-244.Barthold JS. Abnormalities of the testis and scrotum and their surgical management. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 132. Review Date:9/25/2013Reviewed By:Scott Miller, MD, Urologist in private practice in Atlanta, Georgia. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. read more