A CALM grid with a data logger system to monitor the active layer thermal regime was established on SignyIsland (60°43′S, 45°38′Wat 80 m a.s.l.) in December 2005. The active layer at each of the 36 nodes of the gridwas monitored measuring the ground temperature at least at 4 different depths between 0.02 and 0.4 m atthe end of the summer season. In addition, within the grid, we selected four sites closely spaced (in a rayof 25 m) three of which with the same topographical characteristics (north facing aspect) but different vegetation coverage (one bare ground, BG1 and two sites with different vegetation: Andreaea sp. and Sanioniauncinata) and the fourth (BG2) it is as BG1 a bare ground but with south facing aspect. In particular, 4 thermistorswere located at depths of 0.02, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 m at BG2 and at the Andreaea sp site, 9 thermistors at0.02, 0.3, 0.6, 1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 2, and 2.5 mat BG1 and at 0.02 and 0.6 mof depth at Sanionia site. Generally, withthe same aspect, a thick vegetation cover (as in Sanionia site) provides a greater insulative effect than a thinnervegetation cover (as in Andreaea site) or bare ground (BG1) because vegetation both shades and insulatesthe ground resulting in a reduction in summer heat flux.Ground Surface Temperature (GST) was colder and more buffered in spring and summer under the vegetatedground than in BG1, although the coldest GST and lowest Thawing Degree Days (TDD) were recorded at BG2and related to its southern aspect. Our data confirm that air temperature is the main driver of GST, as alreadyreported both in the Arctic and Antarctic. We also found that the effect of air temperature changes seasonally,being drastically reduced in winter and, to a lesser extent, in fall and spring, when there is generally thinsnow cover (b30 cm). During the summer, when snow cover is usually absent, the air temperature is thedominant driver, although incoming radiation also had an effect on the northern exposed bare ground andto a lesser extent on the vegetated and southerly exposed bare ground.The active layer ranges between 81 and 185 cm on the 4 continuously monitored sites and, considering thesites with the same aspect, it is thicker under bare ground (between 10% up to more than 100%) thanunder vegetated ground, confirming previous observations in the Arctic and Antarctic. However at oursites, climate forcing has no effect on the active layer thickness, enhancing the role of soil properties includingthe periods of high moisture content and lateral flow of water.The lack of a statistically significant regressions between GST and active layer thickness could be due to the limitedstudy period (four years) and/or to the variationwith timeof changes in soil characteristics such as soilmoisture,and the possible occurrence of non-conductive heat transfer processes including the lateral flow of water.Further data are required to understand the role of moisture and possible ground water circulation within theactive layer to explain the unexpected strong dichotomy between the GST regime and active layer thickness.
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Advertisement Ole Gunnar Solskjaer will be eyeing additions to his squad this summer following a poor end to the season (Picture: Getty)What’s his background?Although James represents Wales at international level, he was born in Beverley, Yorkshire, and actually spent the majority of his youth career on the books of Hull City prior to joining Swansea City for just £72,000 when he was 17 back in 2014.Speaking about his move from Hull, James said: ‘I had a great time at Hull, but it was time to move on and I believe that move has been the best thing for me.‘At the time, Swansea was a category two academy, but I saw that there was great potential and ambition at the club, which ignited the same kind of feeling for me.’During the 2016-17 season, James played an integral role as Swansea’s U23s lifted the Premier League 2 title, scoring five goals and providing seven assists in 16 appearances, while the team also won the Premier League Cup.Ahead of the 2017-18 season, James was sent out on loan to League One side Shrewsbury Town in the expectation that he would be given exposure to first-team football, however, after failing to make the matchday squad in their opening five games of the season, the deal was terminated. Ole Gunnar Solskjaer has been unhappy with Anthony Martial’s attitude in training (Picture: Getty)Should both Martial and Sanchez move on, United will need to bolster their left-sided attacking options and that has been where James has predominantly played this season, with 19 of his 33 Championship appearances coming from that flank, according to Whoscored.Solskjaer is apparently keen on signing a right-sided winger this summer and although James has generally been utilised on the opposite wing, he has played on the right this season, as well as a No.10 or as an out-and-out striker.Solskjaer has regularly spoken out about attempting to restore United’s traditions during his time in charge and James’ reputation as a natural winger, as opposed to the wide forward’s currently in the squad, is a move seemingly made with that in mind.More: FootballRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starChelsea defender Fikayo Tomori reveals why he made U-turn over transfer deadline day moveMikel Arteta rates Thomas Partey’s chances of making his Arsenal debut vs Man CityWorth the money?At £18m, James would represent a drop in the ocean for United given their resources and his relatively low price is reflected by the fact that his Swansea contract has just over a year left to run.AdvertisementAlthough that represents a sizeable increase on the fee Leeds were set to pay a few months ago, James’ stock has risen since then with a host of Premier League clubs including Manchester City, Tottenham Hotspur, Leicester City and Everton as well as Ligue 1 side Monaco, all having been linked to him. Oliver Young-MylesFriday 10 May 2019 1:29 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link837Shares Why Man United are interested in Daniel James and where he would fit into Ole Gunnar Solskjaer’s plans Comment Daniel James scored the winning goal for Wales during their Euro 2020 qualifier against Slovakia in March (Picture: Getty)Upon returning to Swansea, James enjoyed a goalscoring senior debut by netting the final goal in their 8-1 rout of Notts County in the FA Cup, although that was his only first-team appearance of the campaign as the club suffered relegation from the Premier League.Despite recouping around £45m from player sales after dropping down into the Championship, Swansea spent just over £6m in the summer transfer window with now former manager Graham Potter instead beefing up his squad with homegrown talents.That led to James establishing himself as a regular in the team, making 33 appearances in the Championship – 28 of which were starts – while scoring four goals and registering seven assists.So this is why Manchester United are interested in signing Daniel James 💨💨💨 pic.twitter.com/nSZhXNfA5M— Metro Sport (@Metro_Sport) May 10, 2019 Daniel James has been a revelation for Swansea in the Championship this season (Picture: Getty)Ole Gunnar Solskjaer is reportedly closing in on his first signing as Manchester United manager and it is an intriguing one with Swansea City winger Daniel James set to make the move to Old Trafford.According to reports, the two clubs are close to agreeing a deal worth up to £18m for the 21-year-old who has enjoyed a breakthrough season in the Championship, scoring four goals and providing seven assists for the Swans.If United manage to get the deal sewn up it could represent an interesting change in direction on the transfer front as the club have regularly sought big names over the past few seasons under Ed Woodward’s stewardship.AdvertisementAdvertisementAlthough James has caught the eye for Swansea and the Welsh national team in recent months, he is still something of an unknown quality having only emerged during the current campaign. Here’s what United fans can expect from their potential new signing…ADVERTISEMENT Daniel James won Swansea City’s ‘Best Newcomer’ award this season (Picture: Getty)As well as providing Swansea with a counter-attacking threat out wide, James has also been their most reliable creative force as he has supplied more assists than any other player in their squad with seven while averaging 1.2 key passes per match.Potter, who has now taken the reigns at Brighton, was also impressed with his strength, saying after Swansea’s narrow FA Cup defeat to Manchester City: ‘(But) against Manchester City he matches the physicality of Kyle Walker, for example, and runs away from players at that level.Advertisement‘That’s a direct comparison against Premier League players at the very top and you can see his quality.’Who could he replace?Following a bright start under Solskjaer, Anthony Martial appears to have fallen out-of-favour recently, with the Norwegian reportedly berating him for a lack of effort and reportedly informing his bosses that the Frenchman should be sold this summer.Another player that United would be eager to shift is Alexis Sanchez, who has failed miserably to live up to expectations since making his money-spinning move from Arsenal 16-months ago. The Chilean scored just one Premier League goal all season. Alexis Sanchez has proven to be an extremely expensive mistake for Manchester United (Picture: Getty)United have been stung badly in the transfer market in recent years, through over-paying in transfer fees – as has proven the case with Fred – over-paying in wages as with Sanchez, or both in the case of Romelu Lukaku, and a low-cost, low-risk signing like this one could be seen as a no-brainer.Should James continue to develop at the rate he has this season, he could be worth significantly more than that in a few seasons time.More: Manchester United FCRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starNew Manchester United signing Facundo Pellistri responds to Edinson Cavani praiseEx-Man Utd coach blasts Ed Woodward for two key transfer errors He also scored a memorable solo goal in Swansea’s 4-1 win over Brentford in the FA Cup, picking the ball up on the edge of his own box before surging forward at pace and burying a finish from inside the penalty area.AdvertisementAdvertisementHad things worked out differently, James could have been lining up for Manchester United’s rivals Leeds as he almost joined Marcelo Bielsa’s side on transfer deadline day in January in a deal worth just £8.5m.James had passed his medical and agreed personal terms with Leeds, however, on the eve of the deadline Swansea pulled the plug on the deal and he returned to South Wales. Leeds’ loss could look to be United’s gain…What will he add to the side?Pace and lots of it as the goal against Brentford demonstrates. According to Wales Online, James travelled 84 yards with the ball in just 8.48 seconds for that particular goal and Brentford’s defenders simply had no means of stopping him.That is undoubtedly James’ biggest asset as he looks to utilise his speed and acceleration at any opportunity, driving into space and committing defenders when he receives the ball. This season, he has completed 44 dribbles in the Championship – the second-highest total in Swansea’s squad behind Bersant Celina. Advertisement read more